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SON OF THE SOIL

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BOOK AUTHOR: Kuela Kiema

They have been called derogatory names such as Bushmen, Basarwa or the San people of the Kalahari, since time immemorial because of their lifestyle. They were forced out of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, the land of their forefathers and resettled where they don’t belong. Those who chose to remain in the CKGR where they belong are being deprived of basic needs such as access to water while some of those who threw in the towel and moved out are finding it hard to adapt to the new environment. Such is their struggle to lead their normal life. It is these struggles and the hard times that Basarwa have been through that resulted in the book, Tears for my land, a recount of the trials and tribulations of Basarwa as seen and experienced by one of their own, Kuela Kiema. He talks to Sinqobile Ndlovu-Tessa.

Q. To begin with which name or term should I use when referring to you and your people?
I am a Kua and so are the people of my tribe. We are not San, Basarwa or Bushmen. These are the demeaning names we have been given as people from the CKGR. These maybe suitable to those who use them but we don’t want to be called such because these words are used by the oppressors to take away what belongs to us, our land and pride. For your own information Basarwa originally meant ba sa rua meaning those with nothing, no land, no human dignity, no culture, no rights, no identity, no culture, no language in fact nothing at all. But anyway I will allow you to use these names because that is what people are used to.

Q. You were one of the people who were in the forefront of relocating from the CKGR in 1997, can you tell us why?
We had been fighting with the government for a long time as they were forcing out to move but were resisting. The government then came up with laws banning us from hunting which also meant that were not supposed to even kill the animals which were a threat to our lives and the livestock. We then began losing our livestock in large numbers to predators and all we were supposed to do was just fold our hands and watch because if we killed the lions or whatever animal was killing our livestock we would be thrown into prison. So in the end we threw in the towel to save the little goats, horses and donkeys that we had left and moved to where the government wanted us to be, which is the present day New Xade.

Q. Roughly how many people moved to New Xade?
We are talking of at least 2 000 people who left the lands of their forefathers, lands which they were supposed to pass on their children and future generations.

Q. What reasons were you given by the government to move out of the CKGR and what’s your take on those reasons?
The government claimed that it wanted to take us away from our primitive hunting and gathering life and give us the modern life but the truth of the matter is that there was nothing primitive about our land and our lifestyle. Tc’amnqoo (the native name of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve) is not a primitive place. (Quoting from his book) It is the chief source of the economic, social and cultural development of its people. It is a resource rich land, far from being a place of primitivism. Tc’amnqoo must remain as the foundation of our development and it should be us, who reap the rewards of our ancestors.

Q. It’s been 13 years since you moved, how does it feel now?
I am still bitter and so is everyone. I don’t think there is anything as painful as losing our land, Tc’amnqoo. It was and still is our identity, without our land we are not real people and without us, our land is barren. We long for the day we will together with our children are allowed to go back so we can be united with the land of fathers because our history is preserved in those lands.

Q. How is the quality of life in New Xade?
It is pathetic to say the least because people were taken away from the life that they were used to, a life where they were not dependant on anyone for survival to a life where they now have to wait for the government to provide. Without these hand outs, there will be no food yet in the CKGR we knew that the lands of the ancestors provided us for. When the government moved us out they said the move was meant to give us a better life in terms of social services but we are yet to see that. People still don’t have access to information; they don’t know what is happening around them because of poor to virtually non-existence of radio services. Most of our young people don’t know about government programmes that might benefit them simple because there is no medium of communication.

Q. Some believe that you cannot win your fight against the government because you are not talking with one voice.
We might differ here and there as Basarwa but the bottom line is that we are one people with one common cause and I believe our differences will soon be a thing of the past.

Q. Can you tell us more about those differences, where did they emanate from?
It all started when I mobilized people to move out of CKGR and it got worse when those people actually moved in 1997 to New Xade. I was seen by other Basarwa especially those who chose to remain then as a sellout and a coward. That’s where the divisions came from, those who moved to New Xade and those who remained and later took the government to court.

Q. What motivated you to write the book?
I did not sit down to say am writing a book, I used to write notes of what I knew, had experienced, had seen and heard about my people. But the inspiration to combine these notes into a book came about when I was studying at the University of Namibia in 2004. One of our lecturers gave us a few chapters from a book called Custer Died For Your Sins by Vine Deloria Jr an American Indian. The native Americans seemed to have experienced the same thing that we the Kua had been going through and then I thought if their experiences were documented why shouldn’t I document my experiences.

Q. In a nutshell what is the book all about?
The book is telling the story of the Kua or the San as you people want to call us, the treatment that we were subjected to over the years, from teachers, other students and the government. As someone who observed and experienced this plight I wanted to tell the world the type of humiliation that we went through because we were or are perceived to be different from the rest of Batswana. I wanted to tell the world the real story of the CKGR and to give first hand information instead of hearsay that people are used to. I have not exaggerated anything but have instead toned down on some of the humiliating experiences (such as the measuring of their private parts by one of the teachers in the CKGR).

Q. Already, there are reactions to the book. For example, Sidney Pilane has denied ordering the assault of Roy Sesana as you wrote in the book.
Try as he may, deep down he knows that’s exactly what he did. I have nothing against him and had no reason to write any lies in my book accusing him of doing something that he did not do. Anyway for me it’s good publicity for the book. If he’s going to be denying it and papers writing about it then that good because it means more readers of the book.

Q. Lastly what is your dream in as far as the struggle of the CKGR is concerned?
My dream is for the Kua people to be allowed to go back to their land and live like before just like our forefathers did. Other tribes were not forced out of their tribal lands so why should we? We are a people; a tribe in our own right and thus should be left alone like Bangwato, Bakwena, Bakgatla, Bangwaketse and other tribes. Tc’amnqoo is our land and one day we, or our children, will have the freedom to enter the land of their fathers as freely as before.

(Quoting from the book)
We want to the re-introduction of the Financial Assistance Policy (FAP) and have support from the Citizen Entrepreneurship Development Agency (CEDA). We want development not poverty, we want self-reliance not handouts, and we want jobs. We want to convert our traditional skills of hunting, animal myth, gathering, herbs, music, healing and other ways to make money from international tourists.

Fact file
Full names: Kuela Kiema
Date of birth: Not sure but somewhere between 1966 and 1969.
Place of birth: CKGR
Marital status: Married
Children: Two
Academic qualifications: BA in Sociology and Music
Current employer: Kuru Development Trust (Ghanzi)
Favourite food: Game meat

14 COMMENTS

  1. The celebreted Sydney Pilane advisor to the past president of Botswana.The lawyer and legal advisor to the two Bakgatla royals..The now top dof in the new ecstatic BMD!!!!? Many see him as capable to rule well i say he would rule in the kingdom of fools not in Botswana..VIVA BDP may God bless IAN KHAMA our wonderful president and may he come up with a feasible humane resolution to the Basarwa problem…VIVA DOMI!!!

  2. You knw politics will always be controversial or rather ‘A DIRTY GAME’ as percieved by many..come to think about it was the removal of the Basarwa from th CKGR really justifiable?i mean who has the authority to choose what kind of life another person should live?its dishaertening to get the worst of everything despite having been the 1st to jump at the opportunity,(in this case The KUA being the 1st inhabitants).Really it feels so bad to impose sanctions that eventually coerce people to act against their will ,that’s manupilative,and if this is democracy then we sure have a funny way of defining..im impressed with book maybe its time the natives had a voice,talk of the Aborigines(native Australians),the Kua..and so forth!

  3. the truth about this relocation is surfacing with time. It is still hard for me to make sense of why relocate people just to bring development that this very people could have benefitted from. Their presence should have been packages within the tourism development in that area, they have a rich culture and unique existence that could be exploited to their advantage.

  4. Some issues are complex and not easy to deal with no matter what you do. I doubt that what Botswana government did was out of disregard for Basarwa’s well being! The gov’s actions were poorly researched, poorly advised and good reasons not well communicated with these people, hence this endless fiasco! This problem has pained a lot among this section of our people but it is not beyond our people and country to solve for the good of everyone! The involvement of outsiders will only ruine our unity and peace! That i’m sure of! Lasting seeds of animosity will be planted here and will come back to haunt us!

    For those who think that BMD is the future, I say look closely at those in charge and tell me what you think! This time engage your brain! Can Mr Festus Mogae look any motswana in the eye and say there was justification for appointing Sidney Pilane as special legal advisor while he still had the attorney general’s office!Did he lack confidence in them? What was value for money in paying this man that salary? What did he do exactly that was noteworthy during all that time? Do any of you who now suport him in BMD really think he will be part of BMD had he successfully secured a job for himself in Khama government? Do you? This is politics! Wake up and demand something better than this to solve many of our problems! Telling us how much they hate Khama or BDP will not do anything for our country or you! We need positive politics with leaders competing on solutions to our problems! We are sick and tired of politics personal interests and personal attacks! Put you solutions side by side and let us decide whose are better!

  5. democracy is for the rich, poor are evil fire will burn them. one day they wil be free from nabunasat. jah is the one.

  6. Its has now come to reality that those people who are against the San or whatever they call them (Basarwa) is now on the clear that are particular people I can simply call them cowards. The Botswana government did without regard for the well being of the Basarwa looking at the fact that the people who were riding under the government banner to dislodge Basarwa from the CKGR did that knowingly without any sense of humanity or regard for human rights even when SI try insensitive approach they didn’t want to badge. Anyway only GOD knows what is in the future for all of us!

  7. After reading this interview confusion sets in. Rre Kiema thank you for the interview and opening us to some info that we were unaware of. It is a complex and unfortunate situation but because it is the Kua people(Khoisan, Basarwa) involved i urge caution and more dialogue but if i was a President and vast quantities of oil or any resource that could triple or quadruple Botswana’s income over many years(50+ years) in Sorowe, mochudi, Maun, Selebi Phikwe i would urge and insist people be resettled with the promise that that they will benefit most in terms of development from the regions income. After doing my economics that is. At the moment i would suggest government makes a plan to accomodate those who do do not want to move out of the CKGR in there but ensure their stay is sustainable, i.e wild animals are not hunted into extinction. There are many projects like that across the world, even in northern Botswana i’ve heard of similar projects.
    Now Bagaestho listen and understand we live in different times. For example if you are a Christian and expect to live a lifestyle like Christians of the first century(1st) in the twenty first(21st) century you are going to be frustrated, and i do not think God expects you to. In the past because of lower life expectancy (40-50) years and high infant mortality rates population explosions and the consequent overhunting of animals was kept in check. There were also no guns for hunting animals. So as People let us apply our minds accordingly and find the correct solutins for our disagreements, which is very possible. Offcause we will always have People who are sturborn and augumantative and disagreeable ammongst us but.

  8. sounds like an interesting book though the experiences it talks about are far frm being smthing 2 b associated with interest.
    more blessings on your way Kuela and your people. this short interview has revealed a lot indeed. first, I hv been calling them Basarwa with no knowledge dat its a degrading name. shame dat even our govnmnt officials use it. second, the factions withn th Kua ppl hv been portrayed in a negative way & we were made 2 bliv dat thy hv totally dffrnt values. it is now clear dat evn those hu agreed 2 move r nt happy with it & thy did it coz of desperation & sufferation. little did I knw dat di author of ths book is sm1 hu led di migration 2 New Xade. thot he was 1 of those hu still suffrs in CKGR coz we’v been made 2 bliv that those hu relocated are happy with their new fake settlement. GOROMENTE TSWEE TSWEE SA ITIRE LEBURU MO GO BENG BA LEHATSHE LA BOTSWANA!!!

  9. For the truth to set us free, first we MUST embrace it. The past is gone, let us own the future.

  10. For Those Obesessed With Reading, There Are Many More Books_
    (1)THE INCONVENIENT INDIGENIOUS: REMOTE AREA DEVELOPMENT, DONOR ASSISTANCE, AND THE FIRST PEOPLE OF THE KALAHARI( by Saugestad Sidsel, 2001.)

    (2)BUSHMEN AND DIAMONDS:(Un)civil Society in Botswana (by Kenneth Good)

    (3) San (By Megan Biesele, Kxao Royal)

  11. Pilane o tshwanetse go sekela go laola gore Sesaa a kgobotliwe ka ditlhako go fitlhela naka tsa phuduhudu di wela fa fatshe.